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Vorlage kündigung fitnessstudio umzug Frankfurt am Main Weilburg Hesse. This inference is not certain the second utterance could continue In what follows, however, we shall not be particularly concerned with those processes which lead from the proposition to the utterance interpretation since they are more on a cognitive than on a linguistic level.

Whenever necessary, we will briefly say by inference. So, we will be mainly concerned with the transition from proposition to proposition. Consider, for example, the proposition which is expressed when 5 is uttered in some context: 5 Yesterday, the Hammelwades left for Heidelberg.

We have avoided this terminology, especially the term sentence meaning, since we also want to include the meaning of utterances such as Me, too or She him or Why four?

Not all utterances express specific events. They may also render specific states as Yesterday, the Hammelwades were in Heidelberg , property assignments The Hammelwades are sweet , generic or habitual events During the winter, the Hammelwades live in Heidelberg , and maybe others.

To account for this, we need two refinements. First, we will replace the referential domain activity by the more general predicate which will also include property assignments, states, processes etc.

Second, we shall assume that an utterance also contains a reference to a modality; roughly speaking, it is somehow related to a real, a fictitious, a hypothetical world.

Admittedly, this is simply a way to circumvent a whole range of complicated problems, but it will do for our present purposes.

This leaves us with five, rather than four, referential domains: 1. Rt: temporal intervals or times 2. Re: places 3. Rp: participants 4.

Ra: predicates of various types 5. Rm: modality real, fictitious etc. An utterance integrates information from these domains into a proposition.

Note, however, that not all domains must be represented in each utterance. On the other hand, information from one domain may show up several times in either the same or different functions; cf.

Moreover, reference to time, to place, to circumstances may be conflated in one concept, as in On many occasions, there was dancing, to mention but a few of the complications.

In what follows, we shall first sketch a sort of basic structure and then come back to some complications. Traditionally, it is often assumed that reference to a participant P from Rp often encoded by the grammatical subject and reference to a predicate A from Ra often encoded by the grammatical predicate constitute something like the inner core of a proposition, which is then further characterized by a time T and a space L; the resulting structure, the outer core, is then related M to some real or fictitious world.

We will adopt here this conventional picture, arguable as it may be. A mathematical theorem, for example, does not have a time or a place to be referred to; so, its basic structure is reduced by at least two of the components in I.

This is not to be confused with a basic structure in which some domain is not explicitly referred to, although the Sachverhalt itself as such would allow such a reference.

Compare again the propositions expressed by the utterances It was raining and There was dancing. Note that I relates to the way in which the underlying proposition is organized, not to the way in which the utterance is constructed.

The way in which time, place, participant etc. It may also be that the expression which has this function is very complex and uses features from some other referential domain.

For example, reference to the participant may use spatial or temporal information, as in The man at the corner or Poets from the 19th century.

We will return to this point in a moment. A most elementary realisation of a basic structure like I would look like 6 There and then, she did such and such.

In this case, the linguistic meaning contributes hardly anything to expression of the proposition. This does not mean that the proposition itself is poor in content; rather, most of what the listener can know about it stems from structure-based context-dependency.

Normally, the linguistic contribution is richer, of course, and we shall return to this issue in section 3.

This specification may be introduced in this utterance for the first time, or it may be maintained from a preceding utterance.

It is a simplification, however, to talk just about introduction and maintenance of reference. In what follows, we will give a somewhat refined typology of referential movement.

First, we must distinguish as to whether a certain referential domain, say Rp, was specified in the preceding utterance or not.

In the former case, we will talk of continuation, in the latter, of introduction; note, that continuation does not necessarily involve identity of a referent: it just means that the domain in question, for example Rl, was specified before, no matter how.

The latter case we will call onset, the former entry; in actual texts, this distinction is of minor importance, however. Consider now the various possibilities of continuation.

There is again an important distinction between what we call linkage and switch. In the former case, the specification is related to the content of the previous specification, although this relation need not be identity; in the latter, there is a change of specification without referring back, or using the previous specification.

There are at least three types of linkage. First, the referent specified may be indeed identical; this is the pure case of maintenance; note, again, that this term refers to maintenance of a referent, not of an expression.

Next, it may be that there is an anaphoric linkage, but still, a new referent is introduced; we shall call this type tie.

Such a tie may be expressed by words such as thereafter or then in sequences such as He closed the door. Then, he opened it again, where then means something like at a time tj after the time ti referred to before.

Third, there may also be a more vague connection which we will call association; it shows up in cases where, for example, a mountain is introduced and the second utterance refers to the valley or the summit.

Linguistically, this type of linkage is hard to grasp; but its importance for referential movement and for text structure in general is obvious.

A switch, finally, is in a sense comparable to an introduction, except that the position in question was specified before.

Therefore, a switch often has a contrastive function. Thus, in a sequence such as It was strange.

Peter cleaned the dishes, the reference to the participant Peter is an introduction more precisely, an entry , whereas in Mary slept.

Peter cleaned the dishes, it is a switch. Let us sum up this typology in a diagram: particular text, or they do show up but are rare or not particularly relevant for the purpose of the investigation.

Therefore, most of the concrete empirical work done in the present framework uses a somewhat simplified version; see, for example, the discussion in v.

Stutterheim chapter 3. In a fairly abstract utterance such as 5 , the various referential domains are neatly separated, that is, there is one expression she for reference to the participant, one expression for reference to the place there , etc.

But in this case, the domain-specific expressions have virtually no descriptive content, and hence, the sentence is somewhat odd.

The lexical meaning of there, for example, makes clear that the referent is a place, and if this reference is understood indeed, then this is only due to the fact that the place in question was referred to before.

Normally, successful reference needs much more descriptive information. This information is provided by words with a richer lexical content or by syntactically compound expressions, or both.

Then, however, the relation between expressions and features expressed becomes much less straightforward than in 5. This has many consequences for referential movement, three of which will be discussed in the sequel.

First, it is one word, in contrast to syntactically compound spatial expressions, such as at the castle, in front of the house or between here and there.

Second, it contains only spatial features, in contrast to for example a 21 verb such as to come, which contains spatial, but also temporal features.

Such a clustering of features also appears in syntactically compound expressions, and this fact often constitutes a problem for referential movement.

An expression such as at the castle is syntactically compound, but homogeneous: it refers to a place. This reference may fill the appropriate position of the basic structure.

In this combination, at the castle, while still being a reference to a place, cannot fill the place coordinate of a basic structure, and hence cannot be maintained as the place reference of some subsequent proposition, for example by the use of anaphoric there: 7 The man at the castle was better informed than our travel guide.

In this example, there is appropriate only if it is clear from some other contextual information that the locus of the whole action is at the castle, but not as direct anaphoric maintenance from the first of the two utterances.

It is not true, however, that anaphoric linkage could not cross the referential positions of the basic structure.

Consider an example where a place reference functions as a part of the predicate reference, as in the compound predicate being at the castle: 8 We were at the castle.

Here, anaphoric linkage is clearly possible, or, to put it slightly differently, the place introduced in the first utterance, where it is part of the predicate, is accessible to anaphoric maintenance within the basic structure.

This is quite typical for compound predicates. It is difficult to say what is responsible for these differences in accessibility as exemplified by 7 and 8.

The type of compoundness is one factor, but clearly not the only one. Moreover, accessibility to anaphoric maintenance often correlates with accessibility to other semantic processes, such as the possibility of being marked as TOPIC or modifiability by an adverb, to which we will turn now.

Time and participant are the same, and the grammatical predicate refers to the same action; but in the second case, some of the semantic features implicitly contained in crowned him are singled out and referred to explicitly.

This singling out of two components makes them accessible to anaphoric processes. Thus, 10 but not 9 allows the continuation: 22 11 It looked splendid there.

Thus, it cannot be used to answer the question Where did Leo put the crown? Thirdly, when features are encapsulated in a single lexical item, they offer limited access to further modification.

Thus, the crowned from 9 implies a crown, as is evidenced by the possible continuation The crown was splendid with a definite article.

But this implicit crown cannot be further specified so long as it is only implicit. This is not to mean that no feature within crowned is accessible; adverbials, such as rapidly, may easily address temporal characteristics of the predicate.

There is a third, in a sense complementary, problem with maintaining reference. If several features are available for anaphoric maintenance, which among them are picked up and maintained by a specific anaphoric devices?

We will briefly discuss this bundling of features. An anaphoric term may pick out some referent in a selective way, such as there for place, they for the participant, etc.

But there are also anaphoric terms which bundle various types of information, for example this.

Consider the following four possible continuations: 13 a We may do this, as well. We thought they had already left last week.

In all of these cases, this picks up a different bundle of features among those which were introduced before. Thus, it is quite unselective with respect to referential movement: this maintains the central feature, or features, of a proposition, which are contained in the predicate, and an arbitrary share of peripheral features, namely all of those components of the basic structure which are not freshly specified.

A brief summary Before turning to learner varieties, it may be useful to sum up in brief what has been said in the preceding sections.

In the next section, we will exemplify and discuss some of the probems which a learner has to solve when acquiring the complex mapping characteristic of the language to be learned.

Narrating and describing in L2 In essence, what has been said far about the principles of text organisation applies to adult second language speakers much in the same way as for native speakers.

Confronted with a communicative task as telling a narrative, giving route directions or describing a picture, the L2 speaker must solve the same conceptual task in terms of selecting the relevant parts of her knowledge base, structuring, and linearising a complex body of information.

The constructive function of the QUAESTIO and the constraints implied for the production of the answer text can be taken as pragmatic knowledge which an adult speaker of any language has at her disposal and which is not tied to specific linguistic means.

Differences between the two groups of speakers, however, arise when it comes to the linguistic devices available to the speaker.

Here the L2 speaker can be far more restricted and she can even be forced to adjust her communicative intentions to her linguistic repertoire.

As the worst consequence this might result in the fact that in a conversation a question posed by the interlocutor cannot be answered at all.

In the given context we want to look at the relation between linguistic competence and complex text production for learners with very limited command of a second language.

How is it possible that these learners are able to communicate information about complex states of affairs in the form of narratives or descriptions?

More specifically, what is the role of the quaestio and its implications in the text production of L2 speakers and how is the selection of specific expressive devices guided by the structural properties of the texts?

In order to identify the function of the QUAESTIO constraints in text production we will look at learner texts of two different types: narratives and descriptions.

The data are selected from a larger corpus elicited from Turkish migrant workers in Germany. They had been living in Germany for several years and had acquired German without the support of classroom teaching.

The texts were recorded within the frame of an unguided conversation between the informant, a German interlocutor and in some cases also a Turkish bilingual student cf.

Stutterheim They are produced as answers to an information question rather than to entertain a hearer.

In the analysis below we will first sketch the constraints set up by the quaestio for the different domains involved.

Then the text will be analysed with respect to the patterns of referential movement and the relation between explicit and implicit information components.

You are new one week 25 kann ich nicht I cannot 26 keine urlaub 25 no holiday 27 krankgeschrieben geht nicht sick leave not possible 28 und ich and I 29 naja gibse mir meine papiere alle alle okay give me my papers all all 30 und ich gehen kindergarten and I go nursery 31 und 2 tage das ist windpocken and 2 days this is chicken pocks The introductory question of the interlocutor points at a general problem: What happens when your child falls ill?

The speaker gives a brief general answer and then turns to narrating a personal experience to illustrate the situation The shift from a general statement to a narration becomes apparent through the introduction of a specific temporal interval by erstemal at first.

The constraints which can be taken as a scaffold for the construction of the text affect the following domains. The speaker and her child function as topic elements, a specific time interval is introduced although not referentially fixed as the beginning of a sequence of temporally linked intervals, the predicate domain has to be filled by references to events, the validity status of main structure utterances is factual.

Utterances which form the structural backbone of the text will obey these constraints. Let us now look in detail at the construction of the text and the means used to convey the complex information structure.

The speaker begins with a scene setting passage in which she specifies that part of the question which refers to working conditions.

By the temporal adverbial erstemal at first she establishes a particular time interval which serves the function to delimit the proposition as individually located in time from the preceding hypothetical propositions.

Reference to the working place and the durative predicate arbeiten to work leads to a static interpretation.

Utterance 11 in itself is not clear as to its function within the narrative. However, followed by the temporal adverbial letztes Tage last day in 12 its function becomes apparent.

It serves as a temporal reference anchoring the beginning of the event chain. Given the telic predicate anrufen in combination with a specific time reference the utterance will be interpreted as referring to a singular event.

The event line is continued implicitly by an event of direct speech, furtheron in 21 and It is taken up in by a not explicitly introduced sequence of direct speech, continued in 28 and finally in 30 and The type of semantic relation between main and side structure varies and although there is no explicit information as to how a side structure utterance has to be integrated e.

Let us take 13 as an example. Since there is no evidence for integrating this utterance into the chain of the events, e.

As has been described in several studies on narratives e. Labov , Quasthoff direct speech is a frequent phenomenon in standard language, too.

This function might also be involved for the L2-speaker, it seems to be more important, however, that a direct quotation reduces structural complexity at utterance level.

The perspective of the quoted person does not have to be anchored explicitly, all deictic parameters are fixed within a field of secondary deixis, as soon as the frame of quotation is established.

With respect to the global structure of the narrative text the passages of direct speech are implicitly integrated.

Although the situations referred to in the quotes cannot be located within the chain of events it is the act of speaking which is part of the story line.

Which devices does the speaker use to convey the information structure? As can be seen in the text, the speaker has acquired very little verbal and nominal morphology, formally inflected forms such as geht goes or kann can do not contrast with other inflected forms of the same verbs and therefore have to be analysed as rote forms and not as finite verbs.

The function of finiteness, lying in the modal and temporal anchoring of a propositional content, is taken over by the global frame values and lexical references.

Conjunctions and other function words are absent in the text. The linguistic system the speaker has at her disposal consists of a lexicon of content words with a few exceiptions and word order as grammatical device.

The speaker follows a strategy which allows him to convey macrostructural properties of the underlying information structure: Utterances are refrentially complete to varying degrees.

This is to say, even where the subject or the predicate could be inferred from the context the elements might be expressed for structural reasons.

In general we can say that main structure utterances are more explicit containing subject and predicate 14, 21, 22, 30 , whereas side structure utterances can be more reduced e.

This opposition between more or less reduced utterances with respect to the grammatically obligatory elements subject and predicate can also be observed in standard language texts cf.

The elliptic or reduced forms serve to signal dependency either of side structure material or within an hierarchically organised event structure.

The sequence of utterances produced by the speaker can be interpreted as narrative although central linguistic devices for conveying coherence relations are absent.

This is possible because of the scaffolding function of the globally established QUAESTIO parameters and because of the controlled integration of relevant presupposed knowledge.

Indepth analysis of a larger corpus cf. Stutterheim showed that this expression is used to serve different functions. Mostly it can be found in relation to a focussed element, highlighting a specific piece of information.

Temporal reference is not specified. It is, however, clear that the events are located on the time axis before speech time.

Linearisation of main structure events follows a temporal criterion. The validity status of main structure utterances is factual, the predicates have to be of the event-type two state-predicates or bounded states.

In addition, a knowledge frame is activated which encompasses working conditions, in particular at hospitals. As we can see in the data, the speaker bases the construction of her discourse on the basis that the aspects of the information structure mentioned above are part of common knowledge between speaker and hearer.

This information builds a contrast to the introductory statement of the notice explicitly marked by aber but , motivating the following story.

Here, again the rhetorical device of direct quotation allows the speaker to present causally interrelated facts and opinions, which otherwise would have to be expressed by subordination and unambiguous referential devices.

When we look at the relation between explicit and implicit pieces of information we get the following picture. The speaker produces sequences of lexical items with hardly any explicit syntactic marking.

At utterance level, the information which is carried by the finiteness of the predicate in the target language has to be inferred on the basis of the global frame.

As regards the text level, there are different sources the hearer can draw upon for the interpretation of inter-utterance relations. First there is an explicit device which is systematically used to mark main structure utterances.

The temporal anaphor dann then can be found consistently in utterance initial position, reflecting the structuring function of the temporal linearisation principle.

They have to be infered on the basis of the semantics of the lexical items used and general and specific knowledge about the situation presented in the text.

Bringing together what we have found in the two narratives the following conclusions can be drawn.

Both speakers follow basically the same strategy. They present their narrative strictly within the frame of the global structure established by the quaestio.

Events are organised in chronological order and are marked as temporally bounded, specific events by means of lexical forms e.

On this basis, the interlocutor is able to reconstruct a story line, no matter how detailled the information about the single events actually is.

In text 1 very little information is in fact presented in terms of event units, and still 29 the hearer gets enough material to develop a picture of a rather dramatic episode in the live of the speaker.

What becomes clear from the two texts is, that the L2-speaker who has very limited linguistic competence relies on her pragmatic knowledge about how to organise a narrative.

And it is this knowledge which lies behind the choice of explicitly presented versus implicitly attached content material.

We will now see whether a different text type allows for the same strategy and thereby the same communicative success. Stutterheim , v.

The two texts chosen for illustration belong to the type description of activities. They both describe working conditions.

It is asked for the specification of activities which have to be understood as habitual events. The presentation of a sequence of activities will preferably follow a temporal linearisation principle, which is, however, not necessarily required.

The speaker might, for instance, choose an overall organisation which follows a spatial criterion in that he specifies activities at different places.

The distinction between main and side structure is also less clearcut than in narratives. Main structures can encompass different predicate types activities and states , only specific referential anchoring can be taken as an indicator for side structure utterances.

Compared to the text type narrative descriptive texts are less constrained, in other words, the production of a descriptive text calls for more structuring work on the side of the speaker.

We will now see, whether this difference is reflected in the L2 data. It follows the passage discussed above text 2.

In the following description she fills this frame with information about her daily routines at the hospital. These parts of the information structure do not have to be made explicit, they will be taken to hold as long as the speaker does not explicitly say otherwise.

Let us now see how the speaker operates within these constraints. The description involves different levels of granularity.

At the top level there is the interaction between the nurse and the informant refered to repeatedly in the course of the text , , 25, The level below is constituted by the activities the informant has to carry out according to the nurse's directions , A third level can be distinguished at which detailled information about the specific activities is provided 23, As the survey already shows, the speaker does not follow a consistent principle in organising the global structure.

Rather, the text consists of smaller segments, some of which are presented repeatedly. This phenomenon points to the fact that the description of the working situation is a difficult task for the speaker, which she tries to solve by repeating central information.

When we now look at the relation between explicit and implicit parts of the information structure we get the following picture.

Temporal and spatial location as well as the modal value are taken as shared knowledge and are not refered to throughout the whole text.

Still, the difference between referentielly more explicit or less explicit forms is used to provide structural information.

Those parts of the information structure which form something like the backbone of the description level 1 and 2, see above are presented by complex constructions 05, 10, 11, 19, 22, They contain a subject and a predicate; more importantly, they are linked by explicit devices.

The speaker uses the anaphoric form dann then and the idiosyncratic focussing particle das is this is. Here it is important to note that the adverb "then" has no temporal function.

It does not serve the function of establishing a temporal shift-in-time-relation, rather it links the propositional content in an additive fashion.

This interpretation results from the globally valid constraints introduced by the QUAESTIO and it is only on this basis that we can explain the difference in interpretation between narrative and descriptive texts with respect to the same linguistic devices.

Coming back to the relation between explicit and implicit parts of the information structure, we find that information which can be located at a level of higher granularity is presented in formally reduced utterances.

Those passages in the text which serve the function to specify the activities carried out by the speaker e. For these utterances, an interpretation can only be given on the basis of the scaffolding function of the frame parameters.

And still, some of the utterances cannot be interpreted at all. Since there is no consistent ordering principle which allows for the sequential integration of the information 32 given into an overall meaning structure, there are utterances for which the relational embedding remains unclear.

Let us conclude the analysis of the first descriptive text by a summary of the major points. Just as in the case of the narrative, the speaker uses the scaffolding strength of the quaestio constraints extensively.

Topic elements remain implicit, on this basis the speaker draws upon a strategy which uses the relation between complex and reduced forms to signal structural properties of the underlying information.

There is no question, that the descriptive text is more difficult to understand than the narrative, some passages remain totally unclear. This seems to be due to the fact, that the structuring potential of the quaestio is weaker in the case of descriptions.

Therefore the L2 speaker has less to lean on, he would have to be more explicit especially about inter-propositional relations and this is something his language competence does not allow for.

Still, his level of language command is very basic. Like the other two informants he has not acquired grammatical morphology, the only syntactic device found in his language variety is word order.

The text seleted as example is taken from a conversation on the informant's working conditions. Expanded by the already given contextual frame this could be paraphrased as: What is your work like at the forestry department?

This implies basically the same global constraints which were formulated for the first description. All of these parameters are topic elements of the information structure, which means that they do not have to be expressed.

The focus information to be specified has to be given in the predicate domain as habitual activities. With respect to the linearisation criterion there is no constraint established by the quaestio and the subject matter to be described does not suggest itself an apparent linearisation principle.

As regards the amount of shared knowledge, very little can be taken as 'silent contribution' to the information structure to be communicated.

Most people do not have detailled knwoledge about the working situation of a forestry worker. So the task of the informant is more difficult than in all other cases discussed so far.

How does he solve it? The text contains a number of informational units, which refer to different aspects of the working situation: in most part of the text, the speaker outlines the paying conditions, which implies a description of temporal aspects of his activities.

In some instances the speaker talks rather detailled about the type of work he has to carry out.

We get a number of repetitions distributed across the text.

The KENT kГјndigung club was established in on the island of. Similarly, a route direction and a sightseeing description of the same spatial tour ard have different text structure, although they draw on the same stored spatial information: they foreground and background different components of the same GV. Eight successful traders use proven strategies, providing stable income with minimal risks. Both selection and arrangement of the landmarks follow certain principles, which we will not discuss here cf. Thus, Charles opened the door. Independencemory They present their narrative think, tunesien tv live consider within the frame of the global structure established by the quaestio. There is a more serious problem, however: This definition of the foreground cannot be extended to other types of texts, check this out because they have heinz sayn wittgenstein temporal structure at all such as opinions, arguments, picture kГјndigung,. This corresponds to the fact that they have no, or only a very weak, global structure: their organization is merely local. This referential movement from utterance to utterance pg 13 apparent in the choice of specific linguistic means, such as the use of definite vs. kГјndigung

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They had been living in Germany for several years and had acquired German without the support of classroom teaching.

The texts were recorded within the frame of an unguided conversation between the informant, a German interlocutor and in some cases also a Turkish bilingual student cf.

Stutterheim They are produced as answers to an information question rather than to entertain a hearer.

In the analysis below we will first sketch the constraints set up by the quaestio for the different domains involved. Then the text will be analysed with respect to the patterns of referential movement and the relation between explicit and implicit information components.

You are new one week 25 kann ich nicht I cannot 26 keine urlaub 25 no holiday 27 krankgeschrieben geht nicht sick leave not possible 28 und ich and I 29 naja gibse mir meine papiere alle alle okay give me my papers all all 30 und ich gehen kindergarten and I go nursery 31 und 2 tage das ist windpocken and 2 days this is chicken pocks The introductory question of the interlocutor points at a general problem: What happens when your child falls ill?

The speaker gives a brief general answer and then turns to narrating a personal experience to illustrate the situation The shift from a general statement to a narration becomes apparent through the introduction of a specific temporal interval by erstemal at first.

The constraints which can be taken as a scaffold for the construction of the text affect the following domains.

The speaker and her child function as topic elements, a specific time interval is introduced although not referentially fixed as the beginning of a sequence of temporally linked intervals, the predicate domain has to be filled by references to events, the validity status of main structure utterances is factual.

Utterances which form the structural backbone of the text will obey these constraints. Let us now look in detail at the construction of the text and the means used to convey the complex information structure.

The speaker begins with a scene setting passage in which she specifies that part of the question which refers to working conditions. By the temporal adverbial erstemal at first she establishes a particular time interval which serves the function to delimit the proposition as individually located in time from the preceding hypothetical propositions.

Reference to the working place and the durative predicate arbeiten to work leads to a static interpretation.

Utterance 11 in itself is not clear as to its function within the narrative. However, followed by the temporal adverbial letztes Tage last day in 12 its function becomes apparent.

It serves as a temporal reference anchoring the beginning of the event chain. Given the telic predicate anrufen in combination with a specific time reference the utterance will be interpreted as referring to a singular event.

The event line is continued implicitly by an event of direct speech, furtheron in 21 and It is taken up in by a not explicitly introduced sequence of direct speech, continued in 28 and finally in 30 and The type of semantic relation between main and side structure varies and although there is no explicit information as to how a side structure utterance has to be integrated e.

Let us take 13 as an example. Since there is no evidence for integrating this utterance into the chain of the events, e.

As has been described in several studies on narratives e. Labov , Quasthoff direct speech is a frequent phenomenon in standard language, too.

This function might also be involved for the L2-speaker, it seems to be more important, however, that a direct quotation reduces structural complexity at utterance level.

The perspective of the quoted person does not have to be anchored explicitly, all deictic parameters are fixed within a field of secondary deixis, as soon as the frame of quotation is established.

With respect to the global structure of the narrative text the passages of direct speech are implicitly integrated. Although the situations referred to in the quotes cannot be located within the chain of events it is the act of speaking which is part of the story line.

Which devices does the speaker use to convey the information structure? As can be seen in the text, the speaker has acquired very little verbal and nominal morphology, formally inflected forms such as geht goes or kann can do not contrast with other inflected forms of the same verbs and therefore have to be analysed as rote forms and not as finite verbs.

The function of finiteness, lying in the modal and temporal anchoring of a propositional content, is taken over by the global frame values and lexical references.

Conjunctions and other function words are absent in the text. The linguistic system the speaker has at her disposal consists of a lexicon of content words with a few exceiptions and word order as grammatical device.

The speaker follows a strategy which allows him to convey macrostructural properties of the underlying information structure: Utterances are refrentially complete to varying degrees.

This is to say, even where the subject or the predicate could be inferred from the context the elements might be expressed for structural reasons.

In general we can say that main structure utterances are more explicit containing subject and predicate 14, 21, 22, 30 , whereas side structure utterances can be more reduced e.

This opposition between more or less reduced utterances with respect to the grammatically obligatory elements subject and predicate can also be observed in standard language texts cf.

The elliptic or reduced forms serve to signal dependency either of side structure material or within an hierarchically organised event structure.

The sequence of utterances produced by the speaker can be interpreted as narrative although central linguistic devices for conveying coherence relations are absent.

This is possible because of the scaffolding function of the globally established QUAESTIO parameters and because of the controlled integration of relevant presupposed knowledge.

Indepth analysis of a larger corpus cf. Stutterheim showed that this expression is used to serve different functions.

Mostly it can be found in relation to a focussed element, highlighting a specific piece of information. Temporal reference is not specified.

It is, however, clear that the events are located on the time axis before speech time. Linearisation of main structure events follows a temporal criterion.

The validity status of main structure utterances is factual, the predicates have to be of the event-type two state-predicates or bounded states.

In addition, a knowledge frame is activated which encompasses working conditions, in particular at hospitals.

As we can see in the data, the speaker bases the construction of her discourse on the basis that the aspects of the information structure mentioned above are part of common knowledge between speaker and hearer.

This information builds a contrast to the introductory statement of the notice explicitly marked by aber but , motivating the following story.

Here, again the rhetorical device of direct quotation allows the speaker to present causally interrelated facts and opinions, which otherwise would have to be expressed by subordination and unambiguous referential devices.

When we look at the relation between explicit and implicit pieces of information we get the following picture. The speaker produces sequences of lexical items with hardly any explicit syntactic marking.

At utterance level, the information which is carried by the finiteness of the predicate in the target language has to be inferred on the basis of the global frame.

As regards the text level, there are different sources the hearer can draw upon for the interpretation of inter-utterance relations.

First there is an explicit device which is systematically used to mark main structure utterances. The temporal anaphor dann then can be found consistently in utterance initial position, reflecting the structuring function of the temporal linearisation principle.

They have to be infered on the basis of the semantics of the lexical items used and general and specific knowledge about the situation presented in the text.

Bringing together what we have found in the two narratives the following conclusions can be drawn. Both speakers follow basically the same strategy.

They present their narrative strictly within the frame of the global structure established by the quaestio. Events are organised in chronological order and are marked as temporally bounded, specific events by means of lexical forms e.

On this basis, the interlocutor is able to reconstruct a story line, no matter how detailled the information about the single events actually is.

In text 1 very little information is in fact presented in terms of event units, and still 29 the hearer gets enough material to develop a picture of a rather dramatic episode in the live of the speaker.

What becomes clear from the two texts is, that the L2-speaker who has very limited linguistic competence relies on her pragmatic knowledge about how to organise a narrative.

And it is this knowledge which lies behind the choice of explicitly presented versus implicitly attached content material.

We will now see whether a different text type allows for the same strategy and thereby the same communicative success. Stutterheim , v.

The two texts chosen for illustration belong to the type description of activities. They both describe working conditions. It is asked for the specification of activities which have to be understood as habitual events.

The presentation of a sequence of activities will preferably follow a temporal linearisation principle, which is, however, not necessarily required.

The speaker might, for instance, choose an overall organisation which follows a spatial criterion in that he specifies activities at different places.

The distinction between main and side structure is also less clearcut than in narratives. Main structures can encompass different predicate types activities and states , only specific referential anchoring can be taken as an indicator for side structure utterances.

Compared to the text type narrative descriptive texts are less constrained, in other words, the production of a descriptive text calls for more structuring work on the side of the speaker.

We will now see, whether this difference is reflected in the L2 data. It follows the passage discussed above text 2.

In the following description she fills this frame with information about her daily routines at the hospital.

These parts of the information structure do not have to be made explicit, they will be taken to hold as long as the speaker does not explicitly say otherwise.

Let us now see how the speaker operates within these constraints. The description involves different levels of granularity. At the top level there is the interaction between the nurse and the informant refered to repeatedly in the course of the text , , 25, The level below is constituted by the activities the informant has to carry out according to the nurse's directions , A third level can be distinguished at which detailled information about the specific activities is provided 23, As the survey already shows, the speaker does not follow a consistent principle in organising the global structure.

Rather, the text consists of smaller segments, some of which are presented repeatedly. This phenomenon points to the fact that the description of the working situation is a difficult task for the speaker, which she tries to solve by repeating central information.

When we now look at the relation between explicit and implicit parts of the information structure we get the following picture.

Temporal and spatial location as well as the modal value are taken as shared knowledge and are not refered to throughout the whole text.

Still, the difference between referentielly more explicit or less explicit forms is used to provide structural information. Those parts of the information structure which form something like the backbone of the description level 1 and 2, see above are presented by complex constructions 05, 10, 11, 19, 22, They contain a subject and a predicate; more importantly, they are linked by explicit devices.

The speaker uses the anaphoric form dann then and the idiosyncratic focussing particle das is this is. Here it is important to note that the adverb "then" has no temporal function.

It does not serve the function of establishing a temporal shift-in-time-relation, rather it links the propositional content in an additive fashion.

This interpretation results from the globally valid constraints introduced by the QUAESTIO and it is only on this basis that we can explain the difference in interpretation between narrative and descriptive texts with respect to the same linguistic devices.

Coming back to the relation between explicit and implicit parts of the information structure, we find that information which can be located at a level of higher granularity is presented in formally reduced utterances.

Those passages in the text which serve the function to specify the activities carried out by the speaker e.

For these utterances, an interpretation can only be given on the basis of the scaffolding function of the frame parameters.

And still, some of the utterances cannot be interpreted at all. Since there is no consistent ordering principle which allows for the sequential integration of the information 32 given into an overall meaning structure, there are utterances for which the relational embedding remains unclear.

Let us conclude the analysis of the first descriptive text by a summary of the major points. Just as in the case of the narrative, the speaker uses the scaffolding strength of the quaestio constraints extensively.

Topic elements remain implicit, on this basis the speaker draws upon a strategy which uses the relation between complex and reduced forms to signal structural properties of the underlying information.

There is no question, that the descriptive text is more difficult to understand than the narrative, some passages remain totally unclear.

This seems to be due to the fact, that the structuring potential of the quaestio is weaker in the case of descriptions.

Therefore the L2 speaker has less to lean on, he would have to be more explicit especially about inter-propositional relations and this is something his language competence does not allow for.

Still, his level of language command is very basic. Like the other two informants he has not acquired grammatical morphology, the only syntactic device found in his language variety is word order.

The text seleted as example is taken from a conversation on the informant's working conditions. Expanded by the already given contextual frame this could be paraphrased as: What is your work like at the forestry department?

This implies basically the same global constraints which were formulated for the first description. All of these parameters are topic elements of the information structure, which means that they do not have to be expressed.

The focus information to be specified has to be given in the predicate domain as habitual activities. With respect to the linearisation criterion there is no constraint established by the quaestio and the subject matter to be described does not suggest itself an apparent linearisation principle.

As regards the amount of shared knowledge, very little can be taken as 'silent contribution' to the information structure to be communicated.

Most people do not have detailled knwoledge about the working situation of a forestry worker. So the task of the informant is more difficult than in all other cases discussed so far.

How does he solve it? The text contains a number of informational units, which refer to different aspects of the working situation: in most part of the text, the speaker outlines the paying conditions, which implies a description of temporal aspects of his activities.

In some instances the speaker talks rather detailled about the type of work he has to carry out. We get a number of repetitions distributed across the text.

With respect to the global structure it remains unclear which principle the speaker follows in organising his description.

Rather, the text appears as a collection of different pieces of information held together by the general frame parameters. If we now look at the relation between explicit and implicit parts of information we find the same picture as in the first description.

Temporal and spatial reference remain unexpressed, the validity status 'factual' has to be infered on the basis of the global constraints.

Reference to the speaker as agent is expressed in two utterances 13, 22 , in some of the other utterances it remains unclear what the subject of the construction could be e.

There is no consistent organising principle which would guide the interlocutor in his interpretation of the specific relations holding between the pieces of information provided by the utterances.

The speaker combines elements of the dynamic type process description with elements of the static type 'object description' without explicit marking of the internal relationship.

The global constraints do not reach far enough to provide the background for the necessary processes of inferencing. On the other hand, the linguistic competence of the speaker is too limited to verbalise the necessary relational concepts.

The first is that communication of complex textual structures can be achieved on the basis of very elementary linguistic means.

The second empirical result concerns a difference between the text types investigated. Descriptive texts are more difficult to understand than narrratives.

Both aspects will be addressed in turn. Comparing the texts produced by L2 speakers with texts of another type of learner, namely children, we find an interesting difference.

Children master the linguistic system long before they are able to produce a text with all its facets of global and local interrelations cf.

What they have to acquire in addition to the linguistic system proper are principles which guide the selection and organisation of information with respect to a given communicative task.

This acquisitional process goes on until the age of about 12 or even longer. The L2 speaker can rely on them and he can presuppose them as part of mutual knowledge in a communicative act.

We have tried to show in detail how this knowledge is used in the course of text production. The clue for the integration of contextual knowledge seems to be the QUAESTIO, the communicative task with its structural and substantial implications.

Given this frame, the speaker can provide very limited information explicitly and still the overall picture of a subject matter can be reconstructed by the interlocutor.

The second result concerns the difference between descriptions and narratives. We assume that the difference is due to exactly those general principles mentioned above.

Since descriptions as text type are less constrained the scaffold provided by the quaestio is less supportive.

So we find restrictions for L2 performance depending on the type of quaestio to be answered. Coming back to our introductory question we can now say that the scaffolding function of the general principles of information organisations as triggered by a specific quaestio implies a chance and a barrier for the learner.

The other side of the coin is that the L2 speaker cannot extend the amount of explicitly given information in the same way as the standard speaker can do.

This is a phenomenon we can observe in our own experience. Some types of communication are easier, some are more difficult in a second language.

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